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Coupon Bond

 

An unregisterednegotiable bond on which interest and principal are payable to the holder, regardless of whom it was originally issued to. The coupons are attached to the bond, and each coupon represents a single interest payment. The holder submits a coupon, usually semi-annually, to the issuer or paying agent to receive payment. Coupon bonds are being phased out in favor of registered bonds. also called bearer bond.

 
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Posted by on November 21, 2012 in Study and Read

 

Diversification

 

portfolio strategy designed to reduce exposure to risk by combining a variety of investments, such asstocksbonds, and real estate, which are unlikely to all move in the same direction. The goal of diversification is to reduce the risk in a portfolio. Volatility is limited by the fact that not all asset classes orindustries or individual companies move up and down in value at the same time or at the same rate. Diversification reduces both the upside and downside potential and allows for more consistent performanceunder a wide range of economic conditions.

 
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Posted by on November 21, 2012 in Study and Read

 

Ansoff matrix

 

Strategic marketing planning tool that links a firm’s marketing strategy with its general strategic direction and presents four alternative growth strategies as a table (matrix). These strategies are seeking growth: (1) Market penetration: by pushing existing products in their current market segments. (2) Market development: by developing new markets for the existing products. (3) Product development: by developing new products for the existing markets. (4) Diversification: by developing new products for new markets. Named after its inventor, the father of strategic management, Igor Ansoff (1941- ), and first published in 1957 in Harvard business review.

 
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Posted by on November 21, 2012 in Study and Read

 

SA8000

 

International workplace-quality standard based on the concept of social accountability, its major objective is to ensure application of ethical practices in hiring and treatment of employees and in production of goods and services. Released in 1997 by the New York (USA) based non-profit body social accountability International (SAI), it relies on the codes-of-conduct affirmed by International Labour organization (ILO), the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, and UNConvention On The Rights Of A ChildFounded on the principles of transparency, credibility, and verification, it is said to be the first global ethical standard and appropriate for any type of organization regardless of the countryindustry, or size. Although not an ISO standard, SA8000 is modeled on similar accreditation and certification schemes, andprovides the requirements and audit methodology to evaluate and improve workplace conditions.

 
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Posted by on November 12, 2012 in Study and Read

 

Derivative Security

 

Usually takes the form of an agreement to buy or sell an asset or item (commoditypropertysecurity) at a fixed price on or before a certain date. Derivative securities are traded on exchanges like other financial instruments, and their valuevaries with the value of the underlying assets (which are traded separately from the derivatives). Futures contracts,forward contractsoptions and swaps are some common types of derivatives used in hedging or to gain leverage. Also called contingent claim since the payoff from a derivative is dependent upon whether or not some event occurs. See also credit derivative and derivative contract.

 
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Posted by on November 12, 2012 in Study and Read

 

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Posted by on November 12, 2012 in Uncategorized

 

Alienation

Human resource management: Sense of estrangement felt by employees, reflected in their lack of warmth towards theorganization and in believing that their job/work is not meaningful to other aspects of their lives. Alienation is caused commonly by factors such as a lack of involvement in even basic decision making, lack of human contact, little hope forbetterment, and a feeling of powerlessness. LawVoluntary, complete, and without-reserve conveyancesale, ortransfer of an asset or property from one party to another. In a loan agreement or insurance policy, a borrower’s orinsured’s right of alienation is usually restricted by inclusion of alienation clause.

 
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Posted by on November 10, 2012 in Study and Read

 

Letter of Credit (L/C)

A written commitment to pay, by a buyer’s or importer’s bank (called the issuing bank) to the seller’s or exporter’s bank (called the accepting banknegotiating bank, or paying bank). A letter of credit guarantees payment of a specified sumin a specified currency, provided the seller meets precisely-defined conditions and submits the prescribed documentswithin a fixed timeframe. These documents almost always include a clean bill of lading or air waybillcommercial invoice, and certificate of origin. To establish a letter of credit in favor of the seller or exporter (called the beneficiary) thebuyer (called the applicant or account party) either pays the specified sum (plus service charges) up front to the issuing bank, or negotiates credit. Letters of credit are formal trade instruments and are used usually where the seller is unwilling to extend credit to the buyer. In effect, a letter of credit substitutes the creditworthiness of a bank for the creditworthiness of the buyer. Thus, the international banking system acts as an intermediary between far flungexporters and importers. However, the banking system does not take on any responsibility for the quality of goods, genuineness of documents, or any other provision in the contract of sale. Since the unambiguity of the terminology used in writing a letter of credit is of vital importance, the International Chamber Of Commerce (ICC) has suggested specific terms (called Incoterms) that are now almost universally accepted and used. Unlike a bill of exchange, a letter of credit is a nonnegotiable instrument but may be transferable with the consent of the applicant. Although letters of credit come in numerous types, the two most basic ones are (1) Revocable-credit letter of credit and (2) Irrevocable-credit letter of credit, which comes in two versions (a) Confirmed irrevocable letter of credit and (b) Not-confirmedirrevocable letter of credit.

 
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Posted by on November 6, 2012 in Study and Read

 

Profit and Loss Statement

 

An official quarterly or annual financial document published by a public company, showingearningsexpenses, and net profitNet income is determined from this financial report by subtracting total expenses from total revenue. The profit and loss statement and the balance sheet are the two major financial reports that every public company publishes. The difference between this statement and the balance sheet deals with the periods of time that each one represents. The profit and loss statement shows transactions over a given period of time (usually quarterly or annually), whereas the balance sheet gives a snapshot holdings on a specific date. also called income statement or earnings report

 
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Posted by on November 6, 2012 in Study and Read

 

job design

 

Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienationarising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one’s work. Job enlargementjob enrichmentjob rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.

 
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Posted by on October 30, 2012 in Study and Read